Thermic effect of feeding (TEF) accounts for the energy used to digest, absorb and assimilate the food we eat and makes up approximately 10% of daily expenditure.
This is one of the reasons higher protein intakes are recommended on a weight loss / fat loss protocol. Protein has the highest digestive energy cost of all the macronutrients.
In addition whole foods will typically have a higher TEF value compared to their processed food counterparts. In practical terms this means for every 100 calories of food eaten you eat absorb a smaller percentage of those calories when they come from whole foods. Yet enough reason to make nutritious whole foods the centerpiece of your diet strategy